×

# ANUGCD - Editorial

Author: Anudeep Nekkanti
Tester: Mahbubul Hasan
Editorialist: Jingbo Shang

Medium

# PREREQUISITES:

Segment Tree, Factorize

# PROBLEM:

Given N numbers in a sequence, answer M queries about what is the maximum number between L and R and the greatest common divisor between it and G is greater than 1.

# EXPLANATION:

Every number X can be written in the factorized form: X = p1^k1 * p2^k2 * ... * pi^ki * ... * pn^kn. We can call all pi as X's factors (of course, pis are all different primes). For example, 18 = 2 * 3^2. So we can say that 18, has factors 2 and 3. Because pi >= 2, the number of factors, i.e. n, is in O(logX). Therefore, the total number of factors of the given N numbers are O(NlogN) (the range of N and numbers are same).

The greatest common divisor of two numbers is greater than 1, means that they have at least one common factor. If we enumerate the common factor C they have, the satisfied numbers are determined -- all numbers have factor C. After that, the only thing we need is to find the maximum in the query interval [L, R]. For this type of queries, an ordinary solution is to use Segment Tree.

With these two ideas in mind, let's start to assemble the whole algorithm, now.

1. Factorize N numbers, and restore some vectors of position[pi], which records the positions of the numbers who has the factor pi. From the analysis above, we know that the sum of position[pi].size() is O(NlogN)
2. Build several segment trees, the i-th one corresponds to the position[pi], maintaining the interval maximum in the tree node. Of course, you can also concate all position and make a whole segment tree.
3. For a query number X and the interval [L,R], first factorize X. And for each factor, look up in the corresponding segment tree (or corresponding intervals, if you choose to build a whole segment tree) to get the maximum. Finally, take the maximum of the query results among different factors.

As analyzed before ,X has at most O(logX) factors. And each interval-maximum query takes only O(logN) time. Therefore, to answer a query, our algorithm only needs O(log^2 N) time.

In summary, the time complexity is O(NlogN + Qlog^2N), while O(NlogN) space needed.

As requested by many users here are solutions without segment trees.
Sqrt-Decomposition.
Binary Indexed Tree.
STL-MAP

# AUTHOR'S AND TESTER'S SOLUTIONS:

Author's solution can be found here.
Tester's solution can be found here.

This question is marked "community wiki".

161446375
accept rate: 0%

2.2k72633

 2 @anudeep2011: Thank You for such a nice problem :) About the pre computation part, it is just like sieve, and can be easily done in linear time. It will actually save a lot of time while processing queries. Factoring is not a problem for this question, any method will work :) As anudeep said, time limit was not strict if algo is right. My approach was - making 9592 (no of Primes less than 100000) segment trees, each for a single prime. I then inserted the all multiples of the prime in its respective seg tree along with it's index. When a query arrives, find its respective indices in all the seg trees which divides G (at max 6 factors so only 6 query in 6 diff trees). Find sol of respective tree and then combine. I wonder if its possible to do this sum using sqrt decomposition. I have not implemented this but I think it's possible. answered 18 Mar '14, 23:25 196●1●5 accept rate: 7% 1 Yes. Here is my SQRT-Decomposition solution http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3620495 And here is a solution using BIT http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3533495 (19 Mar '14, 13:58) Much Simpler Solution :) (19 Mar '14, 17:30)
 1 Is there an alternate solution that does not involve the usage of segment tree ? answered 18 Mar '14, 20:49 3★xorfire_ 16●1●4 accept rate: 0% One possible way is sqrt decomposition, but I think it may get TLE. Let me further think about it. (18 Mar '14, 20:59) I tried sqrt decomposition [ http://www.codechef.com/viewplaintext/3616120 ], it got TLE. (18 Mar '14, 21:12) xorfire_3★ 1 Yes. Here is my SQRT-Decomposition solution http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3620495 And here is a solution using BIT http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3533495 (19 Mar '14, 13:58) 5 @anudeep2011 Thanks. Missing this problem will haunt me and my future generations for eternity. (19 Mar '14, 15:18) xorfire_3★
 1 Does precomputation of the first 100001 numbers' factors give tle? While implementing sieve I stored the factors of all the 10^5 elements in a vector.Rest procedure is same as given above.still got tle.http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3536122 answered 18 Mar '14, 22:08 16●1 accept rate: 0% I have precomputed the factors and it can be done in linear time. Although my solution involves offline computation of answers. You can have a look at my approach here (18 Mar '14, 22:51) 1 I actually had to do precomputation in order to get AC. Without it was just getting TLE. (19 Mar '14, 00:38) junior944★
 1 @anudeep2011:Can we solve this using Binary Indexed Trees? answered 18 Mar '14, 22:17 2★knb_dtu 410●6●20 accept rate: 22% 2 @xorfire_ I did with BIT. I change the query function to query in a range, but it runs in O(log^2 n). Here is my solution: http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3533495 (19 Mar '14, 02:42) @rodrigozhou Thanks. (19 Mar '14, 06:42) xorfire_3★ @rodrigozhou I went through your code of ANUGCD solution using BIT. I didn't quite understand your BIT query logic to find the max in a range. How can a BIT be used to perform range maximum query? Can you please explain? (10 Jul '14, 00:32)
 1 @anudeep2011 @xellos0 @rodrigozhou I did this question using the segment tree and prime factorisation and I am interested in the other methods for doing this problem mentioned by you above. So, I request you to explain your solution solution a bit more so that i and others can have benefit of that because it is quite difficult to understand the code directly. answered 20 Mar '14, 22:58 1.7k●1●16●30 accept rate: 11%
 1 @sultanofswing Just remember the usual query in BIT. It would be like this: int query(const vector &bit, int x) { int ret = 0; while (x > 0) { ret += bit[x]; x -= x & -x; } } In the usual BIT query, bit[x] represents the accumulated sum in the range [x-(x&-x)+1, x]. That's why you do "x -= x & -x": you're jumping to the next range not summed yet. So, the idea to do a range query in a BIT is to check if the whole interval that bit[x] represents is contained in the range that I want. In the header of the range query function, the parameters means: v is the array of values, bit is the BIT of v and the range query is for [l, r]. In line, "int n = r - (r & -r)" means that bit[r] has the accumulated sum of the range [n+1, r]. As I have already decreased the value of l, if n >= l, then [n+1, r] is fully contained in (l, r] and I can sum bit[r] to my answer. Otherwise, I cannot do this. So I just get the value set in the v[r] and advance r in just one index. I used the sum function in the explanation instead of max, and I hope it is not a problem. answered 10 Jul '14, 05:43 16●2 accept rate: 0% I understand and agree with your above explanation but I think it is valid only for range sum query and NOT min/max query. Lets take an example (on an index 1 based BIT) for a range max query problem: This is my input array of size 4: index: 1 2 3 4 value: 5 3 1 4 This is the BIT constructed on the above input array which stores the max at each node according to your update function: index: 1 2 3 4 value: 5 5 1 5 How do I get the range max in the interval, say (2, 4) in this case with the above query algorithm? Expected answer: 4 (10 Jul '14, 11:11) 1 So, you're doing query(v,bit,l=2,r=4). In the first iteration, n=4-(4&-4)=0. So, n=l. This means the interval [3,3] is contained in [2,4] and I can take the accumulated value in bit[3]. So, ret=max(ret,bit[3])=4 and r=2. In the third iteration, n=2-(2&-2)=0 and n
 0 edited but still getting wa someone plss help heres the modified link: http://ideone.com/5EWVUQ answered 19 Mar '14, 13:15 4★pawan55 0●2 accept rate: 0%
 0 @anudeep2011 :sir plss tell me why im getting wa although the code seems to be working right on all the test cases i can think of http://ideone.com/5EWVUQ answered 19 Mar '14, 14:05 4★pawan55 0●2 accept rate: 0% 1 It is failing on a very large test case (n = 10^5) For the query "63001 54725 59725" while the answer is "63001 11" your code last submission on codechef is giving "63001 22" as answer. (19 Mar '14, 14:15) got AC thnx (19 Mar '14, 17:09) pawan554★
 0 anudeep sir can you please explain how you handled the prime>350 part in your segment tree(authors) solution answered 20 Mar '14, 12:47 1●1●2●4 accept rate: 0%
 0 @Anudeep, Sir can you please tell where my code fails http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3622900 answered 20 Mar '14, 14:01 2★codemex 1●1●2 accept rate: 0%
 0 I used Segment Tree and sparse tree in separate solution. My program was running in under 2s for the given constraints, but i kept getting TLE. Can you plz look at my solution, http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3557742 http://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/3557556 answered 27 Mar '14, 17:13 1●1 accept rate: 0%
 0 Hi, I was going through the Binary Indexed Tree solution linked in the editorial. I could not quite understand how a BIT was used to perform range maximum query, specifically the following two blocks of update and query code:  void update(vector &bit, int x, int val) { while (x < bit.size()) { bit[x] = max(bit[x], val); x += x & -x; } } int query(const vector &v, const vector &bit, int l, int r) { int ret = 0; l--; while (r > l) { int n = r - (r & -r); if (n >= l) { ret = max(ret, bit[r]); r = n; } else { ret = max(ret, v[r--]); } } return ret; }  I haven't come across and do not know of a method to get max/min value in a range using BIT. The above method looks buggy to me too. Can you guys please explain the above approach? answered 10 Jul '14, 00:54 31●1●1●4 accept rate: 0%
 0 @anudeep2011 Can't We do solve this question using Mo's Algorithm. I have tried it but getting TLE. Here is my code:https://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/8398234 answered 06 Oct '15, 14:04 1●1 accept rate: 0%
 toggle preview community wiki:
Preview

By Email:

Markdown Basics

• *italic* or _italic_
• **bold** or __bold__
• image?![alt text](/path/img.jpg "title")
• numbered list: 1. Foo 2. Bar
• to add a line break simply add two spaces to where you would like the new line to be.
• basic HTML tags are also supported
• mathemetical formulas in Latex between \$ symbol

Question tags:

×2,558
×1,727
×36
×20

question asked: 18 Mar '14, 20:44

question was seen: 11,018 times

last updated: 08 Oct '15, 00:43