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# FIBEQN Editorial by Satwant Rana

The problem asks us to calculate $\sum_{i = 0}^n{F_i\ k^i}$, and time limit suggests we need to do it in $O(log\ N)$ time.

The model solution makes use of the fact that $F_i = \frac{\phi^i - \psi^i}{\phi-\psi}$, where $\phi = \frac{1 + \sqrt5}{2}$ and $\psi = \frac{1 - \sqrt5}{2}$. Leveraging this fact we can perform computations in $\mathbb Z[\sqrt5]$.

So the problem asks us to calculate $\sum_{i = 0}^n{\frac{\phi^i - \psi^i}{\phi-\psi}\ k^i} = \frac{\frac{(\phi\ k)^i - 1}{\phi - 1} - \frac{(\psi\ k)^i - 1}{\psi - 1}}{\phi - \psi}$. This can be done in $O(log N)$ time with logarithmic exponentiation in $\mathbb Z[\sqrt5]$.

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question asked: 01 Apr '16, 00:19

question was seen: 958 times

last updated: 01 Apr '16, 00:19