PROBLEM LINK:Author: Hasan Jaddouh DIFFICULTY:Easy PREREQUISITES:Binary search PROBLEM:Given two numbers H and S, find a right triangle such that the hypotenuse is of length $H$ and its area is $S$. If no such triangle exists, output 1. EXPLANATION:A right triangle with a fixed hypotenuse $H$ has a very nice property related to areas: the maximum area will be when the triangle is isosceles, i.e., base $B$ and perpendicular $P$ are equal. This implies that the maximum area will be when $B$=$P$=$\sqrt{\frac{H^2}{2}}$ (follows from the pythagorus theorem $P^2$ + $B^2$ = $H^2$). Let us only talk in terms of the base $B$. So, when $B$ = $\sqrt{\frac{H^2}{2}}$, then the area is maximised. For all other bases from 0 up to this limit, the area monotonically increases. Also, beyond this limit, area monotonically decreases. That is the main hint: MONOTONICITY! We can binary search on the base $B$ between the limits 0 and $\sqrt{\frac{H^2}{2}}$ because beyond this value, the behavior is symmetric. By binary searching on the base, we mean that we try bases such that we can reach our target area. While binary searching, we have to take care of the fact that we remain in the error bound. Since we want the error in our answers to be less than 0.01, it would be best that we do a binary search such that the area of the resultant triangle with the given base has error less than $10^{8}$ when compared with given area $S$. This is because only then, the absolute error in side will be less than 0.01 (this follows from the fact that we are using square root to calculate the other side and also that area is the product of the sides). Please see editorialist's/setter's program for implementing binary search with that precision. COMPLEXITY:$\mathcal{O}(\log N)$ per test case. SAMPLE SOLUTIONS:
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asked 18 Jun '16, 16:06

The can be solved in O(1). Let's denote base by b and perpendicular by p. Now we have two equations b*p/2=s , b^2+p^2=h^2 This can be written as b^2+p^2+2bp = (b+p)^2 = h^2+4s and b^2+p^22bp = (bp)^2 = h^24s. It can be seen that for solution to exist h^24s>=0. If the above condition is satisfied then b=(x+y)/2 and p=(xy)/2 where, x=sqrt(h^2+4s) and y=sqrt(h^24s). Now print the answer as p,b,h (nondecreasing order) answered 27 Jun '16, 00:14

Solved in O(1): Formula: Sin(2A)=4S/(H * H) Where H is Hypotenuse,S is Area and A is the angle between base and Hypotenuse. Note: Solution does not exist if 4S > H*H Proof: Let 'a' be the Perpendicular and 'b' be the Base. Area=S=ab/2, Sin(A)=a/H, Cos(A)=b/H Sin(A)Cos(A)= ab/(H * H) Therefore Sin(2A)=4S/(H * H) because Sin(2A)=2Sin(A)Cos(A) and S=ab/2 Therefore Sides are HSin(A), HCos(A) ,H My solution https://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/10622622 answered 27 Jun '16, 00:23

We can also solve by quadratic equation : let a and b the other two side lengths. then a^2 + b^2 =h and ab=2*s we can get a quadratic equation in a we can be solved by root formula subsequently check whether the roots are possible or not answered 27 Jun '16, 00:10

Why go for binary search if we can go for an O(1) solution ??(Assuming sqrt operation takes constant time)! answered 27 Jun '16, 00:07

There is a O(1) solution as follows : h^2=a^2+b^2 and 2 * area=a * b . So you can find a+b and ab using (a+b)^2 and (ab)^2 and from it a and b . If a and b are positive then the solution exists. Link to my O(1) solution : https://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/10617012 answered 27 Jun '16, 00:17

Well, I did not use Binary Search. My solution is O(1) or say O(logH), if, computing square root is considered as O(logH). Let sides be A and B. H be the hypotenuse and S be the area. So, a^2 + b^2 = h^2 and ab = 2S. Solving these two equations, we directly get A and B. So, you will notice that real values for A and B exist only if h^2  4S >= 0, and that is our condition to check possibility of a solution or not. Refer to this code for more clearity. Code
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answered 27 Jun '16, 00:20

@tihorsharma123 No you cant. It will overflow in C++. answered 27 Jun '16, 00:21
U will get discriminant as h^4 16s^2 ryt? write it as (h^2)^2(4s)^2 then this (h^24s)(h^2+4*s) now it wont overflow hope u got it if you have any doubts you can ask me
(27 Jun '16, 00:33)

link to O(1) Solution in python https://www.codechef.com/viewsolution/10624650 answered 27 Jun '16, 00:25

cannot access links to solutions.