### PROBLEM LINK:

Practice

Contest: Division 1

Contest: Division 2

**Setter:** Xiuhan Wang

**Tester:** Zhong Ziqian

**Editorialist:** Taranpreet Singh

### DIFFICULTY:

Hard

### PREREQUISITES:

Generating Functions, Multipoint Evaluation, and Interpolation using Number Theoretic Transformation.

### PROBLEM:

Given M = 998244353 and sequence A and C of length N each, with it being known, that

\begin{equation}

C_i = { extstyle \sum^{N-1}_{j=0}} A^j_i B_j (\bmod M)

\end{equation}

holds for each valid i with some coefficients B_i for all 0 \leq i \leq N-1, 0 \leq B_i < M. We need to find these coefficients.

### SUPER QUICK EXPLANATION

- Represent sequence C as a generating function C(x) = C_0+C_1*x+C_2^2*x^2 \ldots and by substituting values of C_i and term shifting, we obtain \displaystyle C_0+C_1*x+C_2^2*x^2+\ldots = \sum_{i=0}^{N-1} \frac{B_i}{1-A_i*x}.
- Multiplying both sizes by \prod (1-A_i*x) both sides, and reducing Numberator on left side to get a polynomial P(x) of degree N-1, we divide back \prod (1-A_i*x) and we apply Cover up method for Partial Fractions to get B_i = -A_i*\frac{P(x)}{\prod (1-A_i*x)}.
- Apply multi-point evaluation for all values A_i using Number Theoretic Transformations and Divide and Conquer.

### EXPLANATION

So, we have this relation

\begin{equation}

C_i = { extstyle \sum^{N-1}_{j=0}} A^j_i B_j (\bmod M)

\end{equation}

Let us represent sequence C as generating function C(x) = C_0+C_1*x+C_2^2*x^2 \ldots . We have values of C_i for all 0 \leq i \leq N-1. Let us try to substitute these values into this function. We get

\begin{equation}

C(x) = C_0+C_1*x+C_2*x^2+\ldots = B_0*(1+A_0*x+A_0^2*x^2 +\ldots ) + B_1*(1+A_1*x+A_1^2*x+\ldots )+B_2*(1+A_2*x+A_2^2*x^2+\ldots

\end{equation}

We know from properties of Generating functions, we can represent P(x) = 1+c*x+c^2*x^2 +\ldots in its closed form by infinite GP sum as \displaystyle \frac{1}{1-c*x}.

Hence, we can represent C(x) as:

\begin{equation}

\displaystyle C(x) = \sum \frac{B_i}{1-A_i*x}

\end{equation}

Now, if we expand the right side, we will get

\begin{equation}

\displaystyle C(x) = \frac{\sum_{i=0}^{N-1} B_i*\prod_{j

eq i} (1-A_j*x)}{\prod_{i=0}^{N-1} (1-A_i*x)}

\end{equation}

Let us take Q(x) = \prod_{i=0}^{N-1} (1-A_i*x) and multiply it both sides.

On left side we have C(x)*Q(x) which is a polynomial of degree 2*N-1 while on right side, we have \sum_{i=0}^{N-1} B_i*\prod_{j eq i} (1-A_j*x) which is a polynomial of degree N-1.

Since both sides are equal, we have all coefficients of C(x)*Q(x) with power \geq N-1 as zero, getting a polynomial of degree N-1 having N coefficients C(x)*Q(x) = P(x).

Once again, dividing both sides by Q(x), we get

\begin{equation}

\displaystyle \frac{P(x)}{Q(x)} = \sum_{i=0}^{N-1} \frac{B_i}{1-A_i*x}

\end{equation}

This is a form of Partial Fraction Decoomposition. Interesting this about Q(x) is that due to A_i eq A_j for all i eq j, we have Q(x) as a product of distinct linear factors which allows us to use Heaviside’s Cover-up Method, read here.

Let us differentiate Q(x). We get Q'(x) = \displaystyle \sum_{i=0}^{N-1}-A_i*\prod_{i eq j}(1-A_j*x).

It can be seen that by using cover up method, we can evaluate \displaystyle B_i = \frac{P(x)}{Q(x)/(1-A_i*x)}.

Now, We can see, that Q'(1/A_i), we get -A_i*\prod_{j eq i}(1-A_j*x), so, we can write Q(x)/(1-A_i*x) as \frac{Q'(x)}{-A_i}, leading to

\begin{equation}

\displaystyle B_i = \frac{-A_i*P(1/A_i)}{Q’(1/A_i)}

\end{equation}

We can see, that for any polynomial f(x) of degree N-1, f(1/x) = \frac {f(x)}{x^{N-1}} where g(x) is formed by reversing the coefficients of f(x).

This way, we can define polynomials R(x) = -P(1/x)*x^{N-1} (Negative sign to make our expression simpler) and S(x) = Q(1/x)*x^{N-1} to get

\begin{equation}

B_i = \frac{A_i*R(A_i)}{S(A_i)}

\end{equation}

All we are left to solve this problem is to compute R(x) and S(x) at N distinct values efficiently, which itself was present as a problem here, having a detailed editorial here, as well as a good resource here. Another link (though in Chinese, try to translate using google translate, can be found here on multi-point evaluation and interpolation.)

**Implementation**

Computing Q(x)

Suppose we represent P_{(l,r)}(x) = \prod_{i = l}^{r}(1-A_i*x). We want to compute P_{0,N-1}(x) which is same as P_{0,mid}(x)*P_{mid+1,N-1}(x) which can be computed this way called Divide and Conquer, having running time defined by Recurrence T(N) = 2*T(N/2)+O(N*logN) leading to overall O(N*log^2N) running time.

This has been discussed in detail in this editorial for problem Chef and Interval Painting Problem from February Long Challenge.

**Resources**

For core concepts of NTT, refer this. This two-part blog on FFT and NTT is nice for competitive Programming.

### Time Complexity

Computing Q(x) can be done using divide and conquer with NTT in time O(N*log^2N), P(x) is just the convolution of Q(x) and C(x) taking O(N*logN) time, and multi-point evaluation of N points also take O(N*log^2N) time, leading to overall running time O(N*log^2N) with a high constant factor associated with Number Theoretic Transformations.

### AUTHOR’S AND TESTER’S SOLUTIONS:

Setter’s solution

Tester’s solution

Feel free to Share your approach, If it differs. Suggestions are always welcomed.