Clarifications of some functions

Hey, I am new to programming. I am in the process of learning and understanding the structure of a game. I have tried to search, but ended up with different results. I hope that I can get a deep explanation of the following, how it works e.g.:

  1. Does the first sentence mean Start class will allocate memory with the second statement?
    Start myStartGUI = new Start();

  2. Constructor?
    public A(int x, int y, int width, int height) {

  3. Drawing function
    public void draw(Graphics graph) {
    graph.fillOval(x, y, width, height);

  4. Moving directions?
    public void movements() {
    x += directionX;
    y += directionY;

  5. Why use public static final int, what does it mean for the constant?
    public static final int STONE = 25;