Editorial : UpDown Sequences (ZCO 2019)

Problem Link : UPDOWSEQ

Let us define two types of sequences :-

  1. Up-Down Sequence (UD) : A sequence of the form a* <= a[i+1] >= a[i+2]…i.e. the sequence
    starts by increasing first.

  2. Down-Up Sequence (DU) : A sequence of the form a* >= a[i+1] <= a[i+2]…i.e. the sequence
    starts by decreasing first.

Notice that it is always possible to insert the integer in the sequence regardless of the inequality sign
we want to impose on it. Why ?

Suppose the UD sequence breaks at a[k]. That means we have a[k] < a[k+1] when we expected it to
be a[k] >= a[k+1]. So, we can insert an element x = a[k]. Now, a[k] >= x <= a[k+1] satisfies.
Similarily, we can also insert an integer if sequence broke up at a[k] and a[k] > a[k+1] when we
expected it to be a[k] <= a[k+1].

But we don’t have to actually insert anything. We have to output just the length of the longest UD
sequence possible.

Now, Let us define f (i , 1) to be the longest UD sequence beginning at i and f (i , 2) to be the
longest DU sequence beginning at i without inserting anyting.

f (i , state) =

                     1 ; i = N
                     1 ; state = 1 & a* > a[i+1]
                     1 ; state = 2 & a* < a[i+1]
                     1 + f (i+1 , 2) ; state = 1 & a* <= a[i+1]
                     1 + f (i+1 , 1) ; state = 2 & a* >= a[i+1]

We will use Dynamic Programming to calculate the above result. Let the result be stored in dp[ ][ ].

Now, Observe that a UD sequence is a combination of :-

  1. UD 1 + x + UD 2 if the length of the UD 1 is odd

  2. UD 1 + x + DU 1 if the length of the UD 1 is even

where x is the inserted element.

So for each i, we calculate the length of the longest UD sequence starting at i. Let the length be x.

If x is odd, we insert an element there (theoretically) and calculate the length of longest UD
sequence starting at i+x. The longest UD sequence beginning at i after inserting an element is
therefore dp[1] + 1 + dp[i+x][1]*.

If x is even, we insert an element there (theoretically) and calculate the length of longest DU
sequence starting at i+x. The longest UD sequence beginning at i after inserting an element is
therefore dp[1] + 1 + dp[i+x][2]*.

So the final answer is maximum among all i.

Implementation : Link

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can anyone explain it in simple words ?
a beginner and can only understand it partially.