# PROBLEM LINK:

Setter: Shyam Bajaj

Tester: Yash Chandnani

Editorialist: Rajarshi Basu

# DIFFICULTY:

Easy-Medium

# PREREQUISITES:

Math, Greedy, Binary search

# PROBLEM:

The Golomb sequence G_1, G_2, \ldots is a non-decreasing integer sequence such that for each positive integer n, G_n is the number of occurrences of n in this sequence. The first few elements of G are [1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 5, \ldots]. Do you know the recurrence relation for the Golomb sequence? It is G_1 = 1 and G_{n+1} = 1+G_{n+1-G_{G_n}} for each n \ge 1.

Find the sum of squares of the L-th through R-th term of the Golomb sequence, i.e. S = \sum_{i=L}^R G_i^2. Since the sum can be quite large, compute it modulo 10^9+7.

L \leq R \leq 10^{10}

# EXPLANATION:

## Hint 1:

Instead of thinking about the indices, think about the numbers of the array and try to count them instead somehow? That is, maybe count how many time 1 appears, how many times 2 appears and so on, instead of trying to think about the value at the i^{th} position too much.

## Hint 2:

There are lots of repeating values right? It seems intuitive that G_{10^{10}} would not be too high right?

## Answer:

Turns out, G_{10^{10}} \approx 2*10^6

## Hint 3:

Instead of counting in a range, define solve(X) = \sum\limits_{i=1}^R G_i^2, and then our answer is solve(R) - solve(L-1). Letās try to implement solve(x).

## Hint 4:

Try to count occurances, and then sum of each different value of G_i that we need to take.

## Full Solution

- First, notice that there will be certain values till K such that we will be taking all occurrences of values from 1,2,ā¦ K, and then we will be taking some of the occurrences of K+1.
- Figure out the number of occurrences of each value till K. Then, take the sum of them. Let number of occurrences of X be Y. The SUM[X] = Y*X*X.
- Now, we want to find SUM[1] + SUM[2] + ā¦ SUM[K]. So prefix sums makes sense.
- In all these, note that we have to find the appropriate K such that the total number of occurrences of numbers till K is less than X when we are trying to calculate solve(X).
- Once we find this appropriate K, we can take the sum of the remaining occurrences of K+1 as well, quite easily.
- How to find K? Think!
HINT:Think about taking prefix sums of the occurrences of each number and using binary search on that.For more details, see Setterās codes attached.

# SOLUTIONS:

## Setter's Code

```
/*
****************************
Author : Shyam Bajaj
****************************
*/
#include<iostream>
#include<algorithm>
#define SIZE 2000000
#define M 1000000007
#define IOS ios_base::sync_with_stdio(false); cin.tie(NULL); cout.tie(NULL);
using namespace std;
typedef long long ll;
ll g[SIZE], prefixSum[SIZE], prefixSum2[SIZE];
ll solve(ll n)
{
ll nthTerm = lower_bound(prefixSum, prefixSum+SIZE, n) - prefixSum;
//cout<<lastTerm<<" ";
ll ans = 0;
if(nthTerm > 0)
ans = prefixSum2[nthTerm-1];
ans = (ans + nthTerm*nthTerm%M * (n-prefixSum[nthTerm-1])%M)%M;
return ans;
}
int main()
{
//IOS;
ll q, l, r;
g[1]=1, g[2]=2, g[3]=2;
for(ll i=3, currPos=4; i<SIZE; i++)
{
for(ll j=0; j<g[i] && currPos<SIZE; j++)
g[currPos++] = i;
}
prefixSum[0] = 0;
for(ll i=1; i<SIZE; i++)
prefixSum[i] = prefixSum[i-1] + g[i];
//cout<<prefixSum[SIZE-1]<<" "; //....greater than 10^10
prefixSum2[0] = 0;
for(ll i=1; i<SIZE; i++)
prefixSum2[i] = (prefixSum2[i-1] + i*i%M*g[i]%M)%M;
cin>>q;
while(q--)
{
cin>>l>>r;
cout<< (solve(r) - solve(l-1) + M) % M << endl;
}
return 0;
}
```

## Testerās Code

```
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
void __print(int x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(long x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(long long x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(unsigned x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(unsigned long x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(unsigned long long x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(float x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(double x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(long double x) {cerr << x;}
void __print(char x) {cerr << '\'' << x << '\'';}
void __print(const char *x) {cerr << '\"' << x << '\"';}
void __print(const string &x) {cerr << '\"' << x << '\"';}
void __print(bool x) {cerr << (x ? "true" : "false");}
template<typename T, typename V>
void __print(const pair<T, V> &x) {cerr << '{'; __print(x.first); cerr << ','; __print(x.second); cerr << '}';}
template<typename T>
void __print(const T &x) {int f = 0; cerr << '{'; for (auto &i: x) cerr << (f++ ? "," : ""), __print(i); cerr << "}";}
void _print() {cerr << "]\n";}
template <typename T, typename... V>
void _print(T t, V... v) {__print(t); if (sizeof...(v)) cerr << ", "; _print(v...);}
#ifndef ONLINE_JUDGE
#define debug(x...) cerr << "[" << #x << "] = ["; _print(x)
#else
#define debug(x...)
#endif
#define rep(i, n) for(int i = 0; i < (n); ++i)
#define repA(i, a, n) for(int i = a; i <= (n); ++i)
#define repD(i, a, n) for(int i = a; i >= (n); --i)
#define trav(a, x) for(auto& a : x)
#define all(x) x.begin(), x.end()
#define sz(x) (int)(x).size()
#define fill(a) memset(a, 0, sizeof (a))
#define fst first
#define snd second
#define mp make_pair
#define pb push_back
typedef long double ld;
typedef long long ll;
typedef pair<int, int> pii;
typedef vector<int> vi;
int g[2000009];
ll s[2000009];
ll ss[2000009];
const ll mod = 1e9+7;
void pre(){
ll sum = 1;
g[1] = 1;
s[1]=1;
ss[1]=1;
repA(i,2,2000000){
g[i] = 1+g[i-g[g[i-1]]];
sum+=g[i];
s[i] =sum;
ss[i]=(ss[i-1]+1ll*g[i]*i%mod*i%mod)%mod;
}
}
ll solve(ll r){
int lo = 0,hi=2000000;
while(lo<hi){
int m = (lo+hi)/2+1;
if(s[m]>r){
hi = m-1;
}
else lo = m;
}
ll ans = ss[lo];
r-=s[lo];
ans+=r*(lo+1)%mod*(lo+1)%mod;
return ans%mod;
}
int main() {
cin.sync_with_stdio(0); cin.tie(0);
cin.exceptions(cin.failbit);
pre();
int n;cin>>n;
rep(i,n){
ll l,r;cin>>l>>r;
ll ans = solve(r)-solve(l-1)+mod;
cout<<ans%mod<<'\n';
}
return 0;
}
```