03LTJNX, 03LTJLP, 03LTJOD

A.A. 2023/24

2021/22

Electronic measurements

This course has two main objectives. The first is to present a sound theory of uncertainty, according to current accepted international standards and practices, introducing also several advanced tools. The second is to introduce a number of fundamental instruments that are part of a typical electronic laboratory, describing their principle of operation, important specifications, sources of uncertainty and applications.

Electronic measurements

This course has three main objectives. The first is to present a sound theory of uncertainty, according to current accepted international standards and practices, introducing also several advanced tools. The second is to present how the electrical units are nowadays realized by means of quantum standards. The third is to introduce a number of fundamental instruments that are part of a typical electronic laboratory, describing their principle of operation, important specifications, sources of uncertainty and applications.

Electronic measurements

Knowledge of uncertainty evaluation techniques, and ability to apply in them in basic measurement situations. Knowledge of the principle of operation of the most common laboratory instruments, and knowledge of the trade-offs required in an instrument design. Ability to employ the studied laboratory instrumentation in common electronic measurements.

Electronic measurements

Knowledge of uncertainty evaluation techniques, and ability to apply in them in basic measurement situations. Knowledge of the principle of operation of the most common laboratory instruments, and knowledge of the trade-offs required in an instrument design. Ability to employ the studied laboratory instrumentation in common electronic measurements.

Electronic measurements

Mathematics: Analysis, basics of theory of probability and stochastic processes. Electronics: Circuit theory, basic operational amplifier circuits. Electronic measurements: Usage of multimeters and oscilloscopes.

Electronic measurements

Mathematics: Analysis, basics of theory of probability and stochastic processes. Electronics: Circuit theory, basic operational amplifier circuits. Electronic measurements: Usage of multimeters and oscilloscopes.

Electronic measurements

Uncertainty, a probabilistic approach: Introduction to the probabilistic approach, type B evaluation of the uncertainty, type A evaluation of uncertainty, propagation of uncertainty; 2 labs on the evaluation of the uncertainty (1.5 ECTS: 0.6 ECTS lectures, 0.3 ECTS exercises, 0.6 ECTS lab). Frequency synthesis and waveform generation: Properties of signal sources, oscillators, direct analogue synthesizers, indirect analogue synthesizers (phase-lock loops), direct digital synthesizers; 2 labs on PLLs and frequency counters (1.5 ECTS: 0.6 ECTS lectures, 0.3 ECTS exercises, 0.6 ECTS lab). Basic frequency counters: Time interval counter, frequency counter, period counter, reciprocal counter. High frequency counters: Prescaler, heterodyne converter, transfer oscillator (0.9 ECTS: 0.75 ECTS lectures, 0.15 ECTS exercises) . Spectrum analysers: Bank-of-filter analyser, swept-spectrum analyser, FFT analyser, hybrid analysers; 3 labs on spectrum analyzers (1.5 ECTS: 0.6 ECTS lectures, 0.9 ECTS labs). Digital multimeters: block diagram, integrating analog-to-digital converters (dual-slope and multi-slope) , resistance measurements, RMS-to-DC converters (thermal and analogue) (1.5 ECTS: 1.2 ECTS lectures, 0.3 ECTS exercises). Logic analyzers: principle and modes of operation; lab on logic analyzers (0.6 ECTS: 0.3 ECTS lectures, 0.3 ECTS lab). Introduction to reliability: terms and definitions, models of failure rates, reliability analysis for electronic components (0.5 ECTS).

Electronic measurements

Uncertainty, a probabilistic approach: Introduction to the probabilistic approach, type B evaluation of the uncertainty, type A evaluation of uncertainty, propagation of uncertainty; 2 labs on the evaluation of the uncertainty (1.8 ECTS: 0.9 ECTS lectures, 0.3 ECTS exercises, 0.6 ECTS lab). Quantities and units. The revised International System of Units. Electrical units: realization of the second with atomic clocks, realization of the volt with the Josephson effect, realization of the ohm with the quantum Hall effect; realization of the ampere with single electron devices. Metrological traceability (0.9 ECTS). Frequency synthesis and waveform generation: Properties of signal sources, oscillators, direct analogue synthesizers, indirect analogue synthesizers (phase-lock loops), direct digital synthesizers; 2 labs on PLLs and frequency counters (1.8 ECTS: 0.9 ECTS lectures, 0.3 ECTS exercises, 0.6 ECTS lab). Basic frequency counters: Time interval counter, frequency counter, period counter, reciprocal counter. High frequency counters: Prescaler, heterodyne converter, transfer oscillator (1.3 ECTS: 1 ECTS lectures, 0.3 ECTS exercises). Spectrum analysers: Bank-of-filter analyser, swept-spectrum analyser, FFT analyser, hybrid analysers; 2 labs on spectrum analyzers (1.2 ECTS: 0.6 ECTS lectures, 0.6 ECTS labs). DC voltage measurements: dual-slope and multi-slope ADC converters. AC voltage measurements: thermal converter, RMS-to-DC converters, discrete and windowed discrete RMS. DC and AC current measurements: shunt resistor, transresistance amplifier. Multimeters (1 ECTS).

Electronic measurements

Electronic measurements

Electronic measurements

In addition to lectures, the course consists of in-class exercise sessions, laboratory sessions and homework assignments. Exercise sessions are aimed at analysing practical measurement situations involving different type of instruments. Laboratory sessions are aimed at developing experimental skills, practicing with the laboratory instrumentation described in the lectures and introduce a number of applications. The laboratory sessions focus on the following topics: uncertainty, frequency measurements, frequency synthesis with phase-lock loops, spectrum analysers. Homework assignments presenting exam-like problems are aimed at encouraging a gradual study of the subject (optional, with approximate biweekly frequency).

Electronic measurements

In addition to lectures, the course consists of in-class exercise sessions and laboratory sessions. Exercise sessions are aimed at analysing practical measurement situations involving different type of instruments. Laboratory sessions are aimed at developing experimental skills, practicing with the laboratory instrumentation described in the lectures and introduce a number of applications. The laboratory sessions focus on the following topics: uncertainty, frequency measurements, frequency synthesis with phase-lock loops, spectrum analysers. Laboratory sessions are mandatory.

Electronic measurements

Slide handouts on selected topics, exercises, homework assignments and laboratory manuals are available for download from the course website. There is no single reference textbook, but excerpts from the following additional texts are used as reference for specific topics: JCGM 100:2008, Evaluation of Measurement Data – Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators, Cambridge University Press, 2010. A. Chenakin, Frequency Synthesizers, Artech House Inc., 2011. P. Symons, Digital Waveform Generation, Cambridge University Press, 2014. M. Engelson, Modern Spectrum Analyzer: Theory and Applications, Artech House Inc., 1984 R. A. Witte, Spectrum and Network Measurements, SciTech Publishing Inc., 2014. L. Callegaro, Electrical Impedance: Principles, Measurement and Applications, CRC Press: Taylor and Francis, 2013.

Electronic measurements

Slide handouts on selected topics, exercises, homework assignments and laboratory manuals are available for download from the course website. There is no single reference textbook, but excerpts from the following additional texts are used as reference for specific topics: JCGM 100:2008, Evaluation of Measurement Data – Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators, Cambridge University Press, 2010. A. Chenakin, Frequency Synthesizers, Artech House Inc., 2011. P. Symons, Digital Waveform Generation, Cambridge University Press, 2014. M. Engelson, Modern Spectrum Analyzer: Theory and Applications, Artech House Inc., 1984 R. A. Witte, Spectrum and Network Measurements, SciTech Publishing Inc., 2014.

Electronic measurements

**Modalità di esame:** Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria;

Electronic measurements

The exam consists in a written test followed by an oral examination. The written test (2h30min) is composed of two problems (15 points each) in which students have to analyse or design a measurement set-up, evaluating uncertainties and discussing sources of errors. The written test is open books and students can use a scientific calculator. The minimum pass grade for the written test is 18/30. The oral examination (30-45 min) consists of two open questions about the operation of devices and instruments described in the course and their uncertainties: the student is expected to present the most significant aspects of the topic in a coherent and autonomous way. The grades of the two parts are averaged to yield the final grade. Students can optionally and individually deliver either a presentation (with slides) on one of the laboratory sessions of their choice or discuss a research paper (no slides, but the student can use their own notes on the paper). These optional activities (20-30 min) can grant up to 4 points to be added to the final grade.

Electronic measurements

**Exam:** Written test; Compulsory oral exam;

Electronic measurements

The exam consists in a written test followed by an oral examination. The written test (2h30min) is composed of two problems (15 points each) in which students have to analyse or design a measurement set-up, evaluating uncertainties and discussing sources of errors. The written test is open books and students can use a scientific calculator. The minimum pass grade for the written test is 18/30. The oral examination (30-45 min) consists of two open questions about the operation of devices and instruments described in the course and their uncertainties: the student is expected to present the most significant aspects of the topic in a coherent and autonomous way. The grades of the two parts are averaged to yield the final grade. Students can optionally and individually deliver either a presentation (with slides) on one of the laboratory sessions of their choice or discuss a research paper (no slides, but the student can use their own notes on the paper). These optional activities (20-30 min) can grant up to 4 points to be added to the final grade. The maximum grade without the optional part is 30. With the optional part, 30L is awarded for a total number of points greater than 32.

Electronic measurements

**Modalità di esame:** Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova scritta su carta con videosorveglianza dei docenti;

Electronic measurements

The exam consists in a written test followed by an oral examination. The written test (1h) is composed of one problem in which students have to analyse or design a measurement set-up, evaluating uncertainties and discussing sources of errors. The written test is open books and students can use a scientific calculator. The minimum pass grade for the written test is 18/30. The oral examination (30-45 min) consists of two open questions about the operation of devices and instruments described in the course and their uncertainties: the student is expected to present the most significant aspects of the topic in a coherent and autonomous way. The grades of the two parts are averaged to yield the final grade, with a weight of 1/3 for the written test and 2/3 for the oral examination. Students can optionally and individually deliver either a presentation (with slides) on one of the laboratory sessions of their choice or discuss a research paper (no slides, but the student can use their own notes on the paper). These optional activities (20-30 min) can grant up to 4 points to be added to the final grade. For the research paper, the student should critically present the work of the authors.

Electronic measurements

**Exam:** Compulsory oral exam; Paper-based written test with video surveillance of the teaching staff;

Electronic measurements

The exam consists in a written test followed by an oral examination. Its objective is to evaluate the student's capacity to model simple measurement systems and evaluating their uncertainties, and to evaluate the student's understanding of the principle of operation of some fundamental electronic instruments. The written test (1h30) is composed of one problem in which students have to analyse or design a measurement set-up, evaluating uncertainties and discussing sources of errors. The written test is open books and students can use a scientific calculator. The minimum pass grade for the written test is 18/30. The oral examination (30-45 min) consists of two open questions about the operation of devices and instruments described in the course and their uncertainties: the student is expected to present the most significant aspects of the topic in a coherent and autonomous way. The grades of the two parts are averaged to yield the final grade, with a weight of 1/3 for the written test and 2/3 for the oral examination. Students can optionally and individually deliver either a presentation (with slides) on one of the laboratory sessions of their choice or discuss a research paper (no slides, but the student can use their own notes on the paper). These optional activities (20-30 min) can grant up to 4 points to be added to the final grade. For the research paper, the student should critically present the work of the authors.

Electronic measurements

**Modalità di esame:** Prova scritta (in aula); Prova orale obbligatoria; Prova scritta su carta con videosorveglianza dei docenti;

Electronic measurements

The exam consists in a written test followed by an oral examination. The written test (1h) is composed of one problem in which students have to analyse or design a measurement set-up, evaluating uncertainties and discussing sources of errors. The written test is open books and students can use a scientific calculator. The minimum pass grade for the written test is 18/30. The oral examination (30-45 min) consists of two open questions about the operation of devices and instruments described in the course and their uncertainties: the student is expected to present the most significant aspects of the topic in a coherent and autonomous way. The grades of the two parts are averaged to yield the final grade, with a weight of 1/3 for the written test and 2/3 for the oral examination. Students can optionally and individually deliver either a presentation (with slides) on one of the laboratory sessions of their choice or discuss a research paper (no slides, but the student can use their own notes on the paper). These optional activities (20-30 min) can grant up to 4 points to be added to the final grade. For the research paper, the student should critically present the work of the authors.

Electronic measurements

**Exam:** Written test; Compulsory oral exam; Paper-based written test with video surveillance of the teaching staff;

Electronic measurements

The exam consists in a written test followed by an oral examination. The written test (1h30min) is composed of one problem in which students have to analyse or design a measurement set-up, evaluating uncertainties and discussing sources of errors. The written test is open books and students can use a scientific calculator. The minimum pass grade for the written test is 18/30. The oral examination (30-45 min) consists of two open questions about the operation of devices and instruments described in the course and their uncertainties: the student is expected to present the most significant aspects of the topic in a coherent and autonomous way. The grades of the two parts are averaged to yield the final grade, with a weight of 1/3 for the written test and 2/3 for the oral examination. Students can optionally and individually deliver either a presentation (with slides) on one of the laboratory sessions of their choice or discuss a research paper (no slides, but the student can use their own notes on the paper). These optional activities (20-30 min) can grant up to 4 points to be added to the final grade. For the research paper, the student should critically present the work of the authors.

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Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino, ITALY