RJSTRING - Editorial

PROBLEM LINK:

Practice
Contest: Division 1
Contest: Division 2
Contest: Division 3
Contest: Division 4

Author: Reyaan Jagnani
Testers: Takuki Kurokawa, Utkarsh Gupta
Editorialist: Nishank Suresh

DIFFICULTY:

2816

PREREQUISITES:

Observation

PROBLEM:

You have a string S, K strings P_1, \ldots, P_K, and some characters given in a frequency array C.

For each x from 0 to K, find out whether it’s possible to make S greater than exactly x of the given strings.

EXPLANATION:

One immediate observation we can make is that appending characters to S will never make it any smaller lexicographically: it can only make it larger.

Let’s try to solve for a specific value of x first.

To make things easier for us, first sort the strings P_i in increasing order, i.e, P_1 \leq P_2 \leq \ldots \leq P_K.
Now, notice that making S greater than exactly x strings means we want to append some characters to S to make it satisfy P_x \lt S \leq P_{x+1}.
In particular, it’s enough to only look at the two strings P_x and P_{x+1}, so let’s do that.

From here, we can do a bit of basic casework to throw out a few simple cases, each time making what S we have to deal with more specific.

  • If S \gt P_{x+1}, obviously the answer is No.
    • Now we have S \leq P_{x+1}.
  • If P_x = P_{x+1}, again the answer is No.
    • Now we have S \lt P_{x+1}.
  • If S \gt P_x, we don’t need to append anything: we’re already done and the answer is Yes.
    • Now we have S \leq P_x \lt P_{x+1}.
  • If the length of S is greater than the length of P_x, then the answer is No.
    • Now we further have |S| \leq |P_x|.
  • If S is not a prefix of P_x, once again the answer is No.
    • Now S is a prefix of P_x.

This is the end of the ‘simple’ cases, which don’t depend on the extra characters in C at all.
From here on, we have to check whether appending some characters to S can make it \gt P_x.

This check can be done greedily position-by-position, starting from i = N+1.
When we are at position i,

  • If S is a prefix of both P_x and P_{x+1}, and we can append some character that is \gt P_{x, i} but \leq P_{x+1, i}, we are immediately done and the answer is Yes.
  • If S is not a prefix of P_{x+1}, then simply check if we can append any character \gt P_{x, i}: if we can, the answer is Yes.
  • If the above cases are not possible, note that our only hope of making S \gt P_x in the future is to append exactly P_{x, i} and maintain S as a prefix of P_x, so check if this is possible.
    • If it is possible, do so. Make sure to update whether S is still a prefix of P_{x+1} or not.
    • If it is not possible, the answer is immediately No.
  • A little bit of care needs to be taken when i is larger than the length of P_x and/or P_{x+1}: these need to be special-cased.

Note that this algorithm runs in something like \mathcal{O}(26\cdot(|P_x| + |P_{x+1}|)) time.

So, simply running this algorithm for every x is already fast enough! Every string is processed twice this way, giving us a solution in \mathcal{O}(26\sum |P_i|) which is good enough.

Depending on your implementation, you might have to take special care of x = 0 and x = K, since the strings P_0 and P_{K+1} don’t exist.

TIME COMPLEXITY

\mathcal{O}(N + K + 26\sum |P_i|) per test case.

CODE:

Setter's code (C++)
#include <iostream>
#include <assert.h>
#include <algorithm>
#include <vector>
#include <set>
#include <string>
#include <queue>
#include <map>
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
#define ll int
#define timetaken cerr<<fixed<<setprecision(10); cerr << "time taken : " << (float)clock() / CLOCKS_PER_SEC << " secs" << endl
#define pb push_back
using namespace std;
  
  
long long readInt(long long l,long long r,char endd){
    long long x=0;
    int cnt=0;
    int fi=-1;
    bool is_neg=false;
    while(true){
        char g=getchar();
        if(g=='-'){
            assert(fi==-1);
            is_neg=true;
            continue;
        }
        if('0'<=g && g<='9'){
            x*=10;
            x+=g-'0';
            if(cnt==0){
                fi=g-'0';
            }
            cnt++;
            assert(fi!=0 || cnt==1);
            assert(fi!=0 || is_neg==false);
            
            assert(!(cnt>19 || ( cnt==19 && fi>1) ));
        } else if(g==endd){
            if(is_neg){
                x= -x;
            }
            assert(l<=x && x<=r);
            return x;
        } else {
            assert(false);
        }
    }
}
string readString(int l,int r,char endd){
    string ret="";
    int cnt=0;
    while(true){
        char g=getchar();
        assert(g!=-1);
        if(g==endd){
            break;
        }
        cnt++;
        ret+=g;
    }
    assert(l<=cnt && cnt<=r);
    return ret;
}
long long readIntSp(long long l,long long r){
    return readInt(l,r,' ');
}
long long readIntLn(long long l,long long r){
    return readInt(l,r,'\n');
}
string readStringLn(int l,int r){
    return readString(l,r,'\n');
}
string readStringSp(int l,int r){
    return readString(l,r,' ');
}
#ifndef ONLINE_JUDGE
#define dbg(x) cerr << #x << " : "; _print_(x);cerr << endl;
#else
#define dbg(x)
#endif
void _print_(ll t) {cerr << t;}
// void _print_(int t) {cerr << t;}
void _print_(string t) {cerr << t;}
void _print_(char t) {cerr << t;}
// void _print_(ld t) {cerr << t;}
void _print_(double t) {cerr << t;}
template <class T, class V> void _print_(pair <T, V> p);
template <class T> void _print_(vector <T> v);
template <class T> void _print_(set <T> v);
template <class T, class V> void _print_(map <T, V> v);
template <class T> void _print_(multiset <T> v);
template <class T, class V> void _print_(pair <T, V> p) {cerr << "{"; _print_(p.first); cerr << ","; _print_(p.second); cerr << "}";}
template <class T> void _print_(vector <T> v) {cerr << "[ "; for (T i : v) {_print_(i); cerr << " ";} cerr << "]";}
template <class T> void _print_(set <T> v) {cerr << "[ "; for (T i : v) {_print_(i); cerr << " ";} cerr << "]";}
template <class T> void _print_(multiset <T> v) {cerr << "[ "; for (T i : v) {_print_(i); cerr << " ";} cerr << "]";}
template <class T, class V> void _print_(map <T, V> v) {cerr << "[ "; for (auto i : v) {_print_(i); cerr << " ";} cerr << "]";}
unordered_map<ll, string> m;
bool pref(string &s1, string &s2)   // Determines if S1 is a prefix of S2
{
    if(s1.length()>s2.length())
        return 0;
    for(ll i=0; i<s1.length(); i++)
    {
        if(s1[i]!=s2[i])
            return 0;
    }
    return 1;
}
bool canmakebigger(vector<ll> freq, string &s1, string &s2) // Determines if we can append characters in S1 such that it is > S2 Lexicographically
{
    ll curr = 25;
    while(curr>=0 && (freq[curr]==0))
            curr--;
    for(ll i=s1.length(); i<s2.length() && curr>=0; i++)
    {
        if(s2[i]<char(curr+'a'))
            return 1;
        if(s2[i]>char(curr+'a'))
            return 0;
        freq[s2[i]-'a']--;
        while(curr>=0 && (freq[curr]==0))
            curr--;
    }
    if(curr<0)
        return 0;
    return 1;
}
bool canconstruct(string s, string &s1, string &s2, ll start, vector<ll> &freq) // Can we create a string s (initially empty), such that we can make it >s1 and <=s2
{
    map<char,ll> m1;
    for(ll i=0; i<26; i++)
    {
        if(freq[i]>0)
            m1[i+'a'] = freq[i];
    }
    bool check = 0; // If check = 1, we have established that s2>s1 and s2>s irrespective of the characters we append now
    for(ll i=start; i<s1.size() && m1.size()>0; i++)
    {
        if(check)
        {
            char ch = (*--m1.end()).first;  // Last Character Required Only
            if(ch>s1[i])
                return 1;
            if(ch<s1[i])
                return 0;
            if(ch==s1[i])
            {
                s.pb(ch);
                m1[ch]--;
                if(m1[ch]==0)
                    m1.erase(ch);
            }
        }
        else
        {
            if(s1[i]<s2[i])
                check = 1;
            char ch1 = '.', ch2 = '.';
            auto itr = m1.upper_bound(s1[i]);
            if(itr!=m1.end())
                ch2 = (*itr).first;
            if(itr!=m1.begin())
            {
                itr--;
                ch1 = (*itr).first;
            }
            // Ch1 and Ch2 - We only require these 2 characters to check for the condition s>s1 && s<=s2
            if((ch1!='.' && ch1>s1[i] && ch1<=s2[i]) || (ch2!='.' && ch2>s1[i] && ch2<=s2[i]))
                return 1;
            if((ch1!='.' && ch1==s1[i]) || (ch2!='.' && ch2==s1[i]))
            {
                char ch = s1[i];
                s.pb(ch);
                m1[ch]--;
                if(m1[ch]==0)
                    m1.erase(ch);
                continue;
            }
            return 0;
        }
    }
    if(s==s1 && m1.size()>0)
        s.pb((*m1.begin()).first);
    return (s>s1 && s<=s2);
}
void solve(ll &n, string s, vector<ll> freq, ll &k, vector<string> &vect, ll &x)
{
    if(m.find(x)!=m.end())
        return;
    if(x==0)    // Base Case
    {
        if(s <= vect[0])
            m[x] = "Yes";
        else
            m[x] = "No";
    }
    else if(x==k)   // Base Case
    {
        if(s > vect.back())
            m[x] = "Yes";
        else if(pref(s,vect.back()) && canmakebigger(freq,s,vect.back()))   // 4,5,6
            m[x] = "Yes";
        else
            m[x] = "No";
    }
    else
    {
        string prev = vect[x-1], next = vect[x];
        if((prev==next) || (s>next))    // Base Case
        {
            m[x] = "No";
            return;
        }
        if(s > prev)
            m[x] = "Yes";
        else if(s < prev)   
        {
            if(pref(s,prev) && pref(s,next))
            {
                if(canconstruct(s,prev,next,s.size(),freq))
                    m[x] = "Yes";
                else
                    m[x] = "No";
            }
            else if(pref(s,prev))
            {
                if(canmakebigger(freq,s,prev))
                    m[x] = "Yes";
                else
                    m[x] = "No";
            }
            else
                m[x] = "No";
        }
        else
        {
            for(ll i=0; i<26; i++)
            {
                if(freq[i]>0)
                {
                    s.pb(char(i+'a'));
                    break;
                }
            }
            if(s>prev && s<=next)
                m[x] = "Yes";
            else
                m[x] = "No";
        }
    }
}
int main()
{
    #ifndef ONLINE_JUDGE
        freopen("15.in", "r", stdin);
        freopen("15.out", "w", stdout);
    #endif
    int N=readIntLn(1,1e4); // Ensures that an integer in the range [1, 3] is inputted, and that there is a New Line (Ln) right after that. This needs Unix-style line endings (ie. \n instead of \r\n). So generate the test files on an Unix machine (eg. Linux, Mac).
    string s = readStringLn(N, N);
    vector<ll> freq(26);
    for(ll i=0; i<26; i++)
    {
        if(i==25)
            freq[i] = readIntLn(0, 1e6);
        else
            freq[i] = readIntSp(0, 1e6);
    }
    int K = readIntLn(1, 1e4);
    vector<string> vect(K);
    int sum1 = 0;
    for(int i=0; i<K; i++)
    {
        vect[i] = readStringLn(1, 1e4);
        sum1+=vect[i].size();
    }
    assert(sum1<=1e5);
    sort(vect.begin(), vect.end());
    for(int i=0; i<=K; i++)
    {
        solve(N, s, freq, K, vect, i);
        cout<<m[i]<<endl;
    }
    assert(getchar()==-1); // Ensures that there are no extra characters at the end.
    cerr<<"SUCCESS\n"; // You should see this on the http://campus.codechef.com/files/stderr/SUBMISSION_ID page, at the bottom.
    timetaken;
}
Tester's code (C++)
#include <bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;
#ifdef tabr
#include "library/debug.cpp"
#else
#define debug(...)
#endif

struct input_checker {
    string buffer;
    int pos;

    const string all = "0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
    const string number = "0123456789";
    const string upper = "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
    const string lower = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";

    input_checker() {
        pos = 0;
        while (true) {
            int c = cin.get();
            if (c == -1) {
                break;
            }
            buffer.push_back((char) c);
        }
    }

    int nextDelimiter() {
        int now = pos;
        while (now < (int) buffer.size() && buffer[now] != ' ' && buffer[now] != '\n') {
            now++;
        }
        return now;
    }

    string readOne() {
        assert(pos < (int) buffer.size());
        int nxt = nextDelimiter();
        string res;
        while (pos < nxt) {
            res += buffer[pos];
            pos++;
        }
        // cerr << res << endl;
        return res;
    }

    string readString(int minl, int maxl, const string &pattern = "") {
        assert(minl <= maxl);
        string res = readOne();
        assert(minl <= (int) res.size());
        assert((int) res.size() <= maxl);
        for (int i = 0; i < (int) res.size(); i++) {
            assert(pattern.empty() || pattern.find(res[i]) != string::npos);
        }
        return res;
    }

    int readInt(int minv, int maxv) {
        assert(minv <= maxv);
        int res = stoi(readOne());
        assert(minv <= res);
        assert(res <= maxv);
        return res;
    }

    long long readLong(long long minv, long long maxv) {
        assert(minv <= maxv);
        long long res = stoll(readOne());
        assert(minv <= res);
        assert(res <= maxv);
        return res;
    }

    void readSpace() {
        assert((int) buffer.size() > pos);
        assert(buffer[pos] == ' ');
        pos++;
    }

    void readEoln() {
        assert((int) buffer.size() > pos);
        assert(buffer[pos] == '\n');
        pos++;
    }

    void readEof() {
        assert((int) buffer.size() == pos);
    }
};

int main() {
    input_checker in;
    int n = in.readInt(1, 1e4);
    in.readEoln();
    string s = in.readString(n, n, in.lower);
    in.readEoln();
    vector<int> f(26);
    for (int i = 0; i < 26; i++) {
        f[i] = in.readInt(0, 1e6);
        (i == 25 ? in.readEoln() : in.readSpace());
    }
    int k = in.readInt(1, 1e4);
    in.readEoln();
    int ss = 0;
    vector<string> p(k);
    for (int i = 0; i < k; i++) {
        p[i] = in.readString(1, 1e4, in.lower);
        ss += (int) p[i].size();
        in.readEoln();
    }
    sort(p.begin(), p.end());
    assert(ss <= 1e5);
    vector<string> ans(k + 1, "No");
    if (s <= p[0]) {
        ans[0] = "Yes";
    }
    p.emplace_back("{");
    for (int i = 1; i <= k; i++) {
        if (s > p[i]) {
            continue;
        }
        // s <= p[i]
        if (p[i - 1] == p[i]) {
            continue;
        }
        // p[i - 1] < p[i]
        if (p[i - 1] < s) {
            ans[i] = "Yes";
            continue;
        }
        // s <= p[i - 1] < p[i]
        if (s.size() > p[i - 1].size()) {
            continue;
        }
        // s + "zzz..." > p[i - 1]
        if (p[i - 1].substr(0, s.size()) != s) {
            continue;
        }
        // prefix of p[i - 1] == s
        ans[i] = "Yes";
        int big = 1;
        if ((int) p[i].size() >= n && p[i].substr(0, n) == s) {
            big = 0;
        }
        auto g = f;
        for (int j = n; j <= (int) max(p[i - 1].size(), p[i].size()); j++) {
            int c = -1;
            if (j < (int) p[i - 1].size()) {
                c = p[i - 1][j] - 'a';
            }
            int d = 25;
            if (!big) {
                if (j >= (int) p[i].size()) {
                    ans[i] = "No";
                    break;
                }
                d = p[i][j] - 'a';
            }
            int t = 0;
            for (int l = d; l >= max(0, c); l--) {
                if (g[l]) {
                    if (l > c) {
                        t = 2;
                    } else {
                        t = 1;
                    }
                    break;
                }
            }
            if (t == 0) {
                ans[i] = "No";
                break;
            }
            if (t == 2) {
                break;
            }
            g[c]--;
            if (c < d) {
                big = 1;
            }
        }
    }
    for (int i = 0; i <= k; i++) {
        cout << ans[i] << " \n"[i == k];
    }
    in.readEof();
    return 0;
}
Editorialist's code (Python)
n = int(input())
s = input()
have = list(map(int, input().split()))
k = int(input())
strings = []
for i in range(k):
	strings.append(input())
strings.sort()
strings.append((len(strings[-1])+5)*'z')

print('Yes' if s <= strings[0] else 'No')

for i in range(k):
	if strings[i] == strings[i+1] or s > strings[i+1]:
		print('No')
		continue
	if s > strings[i]:
		print('Yes')
		continue
	if len(strings[i]) < n or strings[i][:n] != s:
		print('No')
		continue
	used = [0 for _ in range(26)]
	ans = 'Yes'
	ispref = strings[i+1][:n] == s
	for pos in range(n, 200000):
		hi = 0
		if ispref == True: hi = ord(strings[i+1][pos]) - ord('a') + 1
		else: hi = 26
		
		if pos == len(strings[i]):
			ans = 'No'
			for c in range(hi):
				if used[c] < have[c]:
					ans = 'Yes'
					break
			break
		
		lo = ord(strings[i][pos]) - ord('a') + 1
		ans = 'No'
		for c in range(lo, hi):
			if used[c] < have[c]:
				ans = 'Yes'
				break
		if ans == 'Yes': break
		if used[lo-1] < have[lo-1]:
			used[lo-1] += 1
			if ispref == True and strings[i][pos] != strings[i+1][pos]: ispref = False
			ans = 'Yes'
			continue
		ans = 'No'
		break
	print(ans)

Will WA test cases be added for this question.
my code is failing 4 testcases. (is there an alternate way to get WA test cases)

1 Like

If you’re not a fan of casework, you can also toss all the P_i strings into a trie and DFS in the trie. Every time you make a transition down a particular child from a node, you know you are lexicographically larger than all strings in the subtrees of children before that child, so you add the number of them to your running total. You can also maintain the amounts of each character remaining from the C array while you DFS. CodeChef | Competitive Programming | Participate & Learn

1 Like

Hey , do you know how to find the wrong test-cases .