hi just mention the best source/link/book to learn specifically the following
whats the best book/source to learn the following: proofs, including proofs by induction and by contradiction; and some discrete probability, like how to compute the probability that a poker hand is a full house.
Proofs of what?
If related to algorithms, then I would recommend you watch Dr. Naveen Garg video lectures on Youtube (e.g. Naveen Garg Shortest Path), he explains and gives proof very casually that will help build a good foundation.
Read/solve mathematics books, e.g. Concrete Mathematics by Knuth et al, it includes a chapter on Probability.
Parse the proofs and algorithms mentioned in CLRS.
If you want to learn Probability separately, you can read a book specific to probability. There is a book Andrescu - A Path to Combinatorics for Undergraduates, the pdf is available on the internet.
It seems you are suffering from the same problem I am!! Lacking some good Discrete Maths background… I have also been reading (whenever I have what people like to call time) a book on DM which was recommended here and it’s freely available online!!
The book is written by: L. Lovász and K. Vesztergombi and it’s entitled “Discrete Mathematics - Lectures from Yale University, Spring 1999”.
This book along with the ones @bugkiller suggested might help you getting on track
@imcode : Discrete Mathematics by C.L. Liu by Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishers is a very good book .