Why is this problem hard

Problem
The problem that i am facing with the below question is that big test cases take more that 5 seconds and also the fact that large numbers that are above 10^9+7 causes it to give me a wrong answer.

Question
Determine the maximum subsequence product that can be formed from the elements of this array. Moreover, any pair of index i and index j is present in the same subsequence if and only if their product i*j is a perfect square.Since the answer can be large, output the answer modulo .

My explanation
You are given an array as an input (1 dimensional) we will use 1 based indexing (start count from 1 instead of 0). now what you have to find is find all pairs of (i,j) where i*j is a perfect square and multiply the values at i and j together now try the same with a different i find the i that gives you the maximum product and return the maximum product

Sample input

N = 8 (size of the array)
A = 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 9 (The array)

Output

63

My Approach

I approached this in a brute force method like a two pointer problem.
taking a left pointer and then a right pointer as the last index of the list and checking whether they from a perfect square when multiplied and continuing to multiply values of other indexes until all values inside the array with the same L index is multiplied together and finaly check if that is the maximum value that can be obtained.

Can you link the problem. To me it looks like your question has errors.

“any pair of index i and index j is present in the same subsequence if and only if their product i*j is a perfect square” - this is an ambiguous statement.
It should mean that you have 1 subsequence, with all i and j whose product is any perfect square.

According to the example this is clearly not the case. According to the example you only ever care about single pairs of i and j. But why would it then be called ‘subsequence’?

To answer your question :-

What they meant by that is imagine i = 1 and length of array is 16
1 forms a perfect square when multiplied with 1,4,9 and 16

assuming that the product of Arr[1] * Arr[4] * Arr[9] *Arr[16] ( take into account that we use 1 based indexing so in the real example do index-1 to get zero indexing) is the largest product we return ( Arr[1] * Arr[4] * Arr[9] *Arr[16] ) % 10^9+7 . so that it doesn’t overflow.

Access to this question is restricted to whoever signed up for the 7 day learning challenge so i don’t think you would be able to access the url but i can share with you the entire problem
This is supposed to be a challenge.
but i feel like i have spent way too much time on it.

okay. What about your sample Input?

N = 8 (size of the array)
A = 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 9 (The array)

Output

63

shouldn’t the output be A[1] * A[4] * A[8] = 8 * 5 * 9 = 360 ?

No because 1x4 is a perfect square but 1x8 is not a perfect square (as sqrt(8) is some decimal value)
you check if two indexes form a perfect square and then regardless of what value that index contains multiply them and check if that is the maximum for that perticular index i

so in this case 1x1 where A[1] = 8 and 1x4 is perfect where A[4] = 5 so product = 5x8 = 40
the current maximum is 40, there is no further index that forms a perfect square with 1
then we check if 2 form a perfect square with some number (it can with 8) . 2x8 = 16 which is perfect square but A[2] x A[8] = 63 which is grater than the previous maximum 40 so the max product is 63 . the next index 3 cant form a perfect square other than iteself within the length of the array.

yes, you are right. The size of N is still missing though.

Because you have multiple testcases, you most likely want to pre-calculate as much as possible

Try to work out the 2 rules you can find here:
(Note: this table shows which indices j can be if i is fixed)

Subsequence 1: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144, 169, 196, 225, ...
Subsequence 2: -  2, -   8,  -  18,  -  32,  -   50,   -   72,   -   98,   -  ...
Subsequence 3: -  -  3,  -   -  12,  -   -  27,   -    -   48,   -    -   75  ...
Subsequence 4: -  1, -   4,  -   9,  -  16,  -   25,   -   36,   -   49,   -  ...
Subsequence 5: -  -  -   -   5,  -   -   -   -   20,   -    -    -    -   45, ...
Subsequence 6: -  -  -   -   -   6,  -   -   -    -    -   24,   -    -    -  ...
Subsequence 7: -  -  -   -   -   -   7,  -   -    -    -    -    -   28,   -  ...
Subsequence 8: -  -  -   2,  -   -   -   8,  -    -    -   18,   -    -    -  ...
Subsequence 9: -  -  1,  -   -   4,   -   -   9,   -    -  16,   -    -    25 ...

...
solution
all non-overlapping subsequences:
Subsequence 1: 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144, 169, 196, 225, ...
Subsequence 2: -  2, -   8,  -  18,  -  32,  -   50,   -   72,   -   98,   -  ...
Subsequence 3: -  -  3,  -   -  12,  -   -  27,   -    -   48,   -    -   75  ...
Subsequence 5: -  -  -   -   5,  -   -   -   -   20,   -    -    -    -   45, ...
Subsequence 6: -  -  -   -   -   6,  -   -   -    -    -   24,   -    -    -  ...
Subsequence 7: -  -  -   -   -   -   7,  -   -    -    -    -    -   28,   -  ...

(logic should be understandable by looking at the table.
Subsequence 1: every perfect square can be the product of i * j. Subsequence 5: every 5th perfect square can be the product of i * j. Subsequence n: every nth perfect square can be the product of i * j.)

subsequences that are irrelevant:
Subsequence 4: -  1, -   4,  -   9,  -  16,  -   25,   -   36,   -   49,   -  ...
Subsequence 8: -  -  -   2,  -   -   -   8,  -    -    -   18,   -    -    -  ...
Subsequence 9: -  -  1,  -   -   4,   -   -   9,   -    -  16,   -    -    25 ...

(these subsequences can be ignored, they are sub-subsequences of those above. 4 is a copy of subsequence 1. 8 is a copy of subsequence 2. 9 is a copy of subsequence 1 and so on.
I did not test it, but I would assume a subsequence is irrelevant, if the number (in this case 4, 8 or 9) is part of another subsequence that comes before. 4 is is the 2nd number in subsequence 1. 8 is the 2nd number in subsequence 2. 9 is the 3rd number in subsequence 1.)
)
My approach:

  • create an array that contains the N perfect squares
  • create a set that contains all dupes
  • for i = 1 to N:
    → if i isElement of set: continue
    → else: fully calculate the ith subsequence and add each element to the set
  • calculate solution with the help of all sets