Data Structure Tutorial : Tree

Tree
A tree is a non linear data structure . It is a finite collection of nodes that reflects one to many relationship. It is hierarchical structure.
The connection line between two nodes is called edge.

 The topmost node is called root of the tree.

 The element that are directly under an element are called its children. 
         
 The element directly above something is called its parent. 

 Except the root each element has a parent.

 The node that has child node is called parent node.

 Two nodes that have the same parent are called sibling.** 

 A node that is connected to all lower-level nodes is called an ancestor.

 The connected lower-level nodes are descendants of the ancestor node.

 Height of a node is the number of edges between the target node and furthest leaf node.

 Depth  of a node is the number of edges between the target node and root node.

alt text

 Applications of tree:                         
  1. File system.
  2. Storing hierarchies in organizations
  3. Router algorithms



  Binary Tree: A tree whose elements have at most 2 children is called a binary tree. 

alt text
Mainly Here we discuss about the Binary Search Tree

  Binary Search Tree :  A Binary Search Tree is a binary tree where all the node value of the left subtree are smaller than or equal to the root node value and the node value of the right subtree are larger than or equal to the root node value.

alt text


Before doing binary search tree we need to define structure for binary search tree.

 struct bst
 {
   int data;
   bst *left;
   bst *right;
 }*root=NULL:

BST Creation :

Algorithm : creation(data)
Step 1: Start
Step 2: Set newnode = new bst
Step 3: Set newnode.data = data
Step 4: Set newnode.left = newnode.right = NULL
Step 5: return newnode
Step 6: End
bst *creation(int data)
{

  bst *newnode = new bst;
 newnode->data = data;
   newnode->left= newnode->right = NULL:
  return newnode;
}

Inorder traversal Algorithm:

Inorder(root)
Step 1: Start
Step 2: if root!=NULL
        inorder(root.left);
        print root.data;
        inorder(root.right);
Step 3: End.

C++ implementation:
void inorder(bst *root)
 {
   if(root!=NULL)
   {
     inorder(root->left);
     cout<<root->data<right);
   }
 }

BST Seach Algorithm:

Search(root,data)
Step 1: Start
Step 2: if (root==NULL)           return false;
        else if(root.data = data) return true
        else if(root.data < data) return search(root.right, data);
        else                      return search(root.left,  data);                                        
Step 3: End



C++ implementation: 
bool search(bst *root,int data)
{
 if(root==NULL)              return  root;
 else if(root->data = data)  return true
 else if(root->data < data)  return search(root->right, data);
 else                        return search(root->left, data);
}

Insertion Algorithm:

Insertion(root,data)
 Step 1: Start
 Step 2: if (root==NULL)             root = creation(data);
         else if(root->data < data)  root.right = Insetion(root.right, data);
         else if(root->data > data)  root.left  = Insertion(root.left,  data);
         else                        return root;                                
 Step 3: End

C++ implementation:
bst  *Insertion(bst  *root,int data)
{
 if (root==NULL)              root = creation(data);
 else if(root->data < data)   root->right = Insetion(root->right, data);
 else if(root->data > data)   root->left  = Insertion(root->left, data);
 else                         return root;
}

alt text


Function to find minimum in a tree.

bst* FindMin(bst* root)  {
   if(root==NULL || root->left ==NULL) return root;
   else                                return FindMin(root->left); 
 }

Deletion Algorithm:

Deletion(root, data)
Step 1: Start
Step 2: Locate the node to be deleted
Step 3:Three Case can be considered
   Case 1 : If the node is leaf node:
       i.If the node is left child of the parent, make NULL the left pointer of its parent node and free the space for the node.
      ii.If the node is right child of the parent, make NULL the right pointer of its parent node and free the space for the node.

   Case 2:  If the node has one child: 
      i.If the node to be deleted is left child of its parent, then make link between the left pointer of its parent node and child node(left or right) of the node to be deleted. Then delete the node.
      II.If the node to be deleted is right child of its parent, then make link between the right pointer of its parent node and child node(left or right) of the node to be deleted. Then delete the node.

   Case 3: If the node to be deleted has two children:
       Find the the node with minimum value from the right sub tree (the node to be delete).Replace the node value to be deleted .Delete the target node.

Step 4: ENd.


C++ implementation :

bst *Deletion(bst *root, int data)
 {
   if (root==NULL)                return root;
   else if(root->data > data)     root->left  = Deletion(root->left, data);
   else if(root->data < data)  root->right = Deletion(root->right, data);
   else
   {
        if(root->left==NULL && root->right==NULL) 
        {
          delete root;
          root = NULL;
        }


        else if(root->left==NULL) 
        {
          bst *temp = root;
          root = root->right;
          delete temp; 
        }

        else if(root->right==NULL) 
        {
          bst *temp = root;
          root = root->left;
          delete temp; 
        }


        else
        {
          bst *temp = FindMin(root->right);
          root->data = temp->data;
          root->right = Deletion(root->right, temp->data);
        }
      }
  }

alt text
alt text

Height Of BST :
Height Of Binary search tree is the number of edges between the root node and furthest leaf node.
alt text

Algorithm : Height(root)
Step 1: Start
Step 2:if (root==NULL) return -1;
      else   return max(getHeight(root.left), getHeight(root.right)) + 1;                                      
Step 3: End

C++ implementation :

int getHeight(Node* root) {
if(root == NULL) return -1;
else return max(getHeight(root->left), getHeight(root->right)) + 1;
}

Full Source code : Link

Hackerrank Problem : Binary Search Tree : Insertion, Inorder Traversal, Binary Search Trees, Height of a Tree

@rashedcs I suggest creating a blog and posting these tutorials there too.

I suggest posting some links to some videos as well as they help understand better.

Sorry, C+±implementation is just plain wrong again (most of it won’t even compile) as it is still in the tutorial for stack. Please test your implementation at least to some extent before posting.

1 Like

@rashedcs if you are typing name of the structure as bst and you are writing right node and left node?? node is not defined. error in all the functions please correct this.
Edit :In insertion it should be *root instead of root as a parameter.
Edit :The return type of insertion should be * insertion.
Edit :In deletions temp should be of type node/bst.
Edit :Minor mistakes At many places semicolon is not there instead used :

A request. Please compile your solutions before posting there are many major mistakes with some minor mistakes of semicolons. It may be very difficult for beginners here to get the concept.

Can you also write the pre-requisites? It may help.

Code is seems wrong. Please compile before posting. Also there are many typos.

Tnq so much for your suggestion @coder_voder

Kindly explain me , where is wrong.
My Full source code : http://rashedcs.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2016-07-19T11:44:00-07:00&max-results=1&start=16&by-date=false

It’s giving page not found.

1 Like

@rashedcs same here

Tnq @diveshuttam

please start by fixing typos and simple bugs by using code that actually compiles. Until then it doesn’t make much sens to talk about correctness.

1 Like

@rashedcs still node at many places. Use typedef node bst; to get rid of all at once.

agreed with @ceilks. Before asking for mistakes you should have compiled your solution first.Then you will realize there are dozens of mistakes.

yeap. I am sorry for my mistake. I try my best. Please suggest me what is the best way to post code in codechef discussion page. I convert c++ to html but some times * symbol do not show.

ok that might be the fault on the side of codechef as it is a special symbol here in discussion. it is used for italics. if you want to show it as such select it and press the code button in the formatting bar; it will help.but the error of node-bst and semicolons surely means that you haven’t compiled the code first. This is not done.You should compile first and then add the link to the actual code that will do. even if there are mistakes of formatting here one could go to the actual link.

your blog post is not showing up the code.

you may also add screenshots and link to the code